realized for the more than 34 million infected
with this virus. HIV is incurable because infected individuals harbor cells where the HIV
provirus is integrated into the host's DNA but is not actively replicating and
thus is not inhibited by antiviral drugs. Similarly, these latent viruses are
not detected by the immune system. In this Review, we discuss HIV-1
latency and the mechanisms that allow this pathogenic retrovirus to hide and
persist by exploiting the cellular vehicles of immunological memory.