Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study. Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters).
Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes. Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans.
The risk of potential thromboembolic, renal and cardiac complications of sickle cell trait. Many complications of sickle cell trait have been well-established, but associations with additional disease states remain controversial. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the frequency of receiving a diagnosis of thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism (PE), ischemic stroke, renal disease (acute, chronic), coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with sickle cell trait. A total of 13 964 adult African Americans registered in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) health system (Oakland, CA, USA), were included based on laboratory and diagnostic code data for the years 1995-2008: 2642 with sickle cell trait, 11 183 with normal hemoglobin (Hb) and 139 with sickle cell disease. Disease outcomes were obtained from coded diagnoses.
Procalcitonin predicts mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults with lower respiratory tract infections. In low and middle-income countries where HIV infection is prevalent, identifying patients at high risk of dying from lower respiratory tract infections is challenging and validated prognostic models are lacking. Serum procalcitonin may be a useful prognostic tool in these settings. We sought to determine if elevated serum procalcitonin is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and to combine serum procalcitonin with available clinical characteristics to create a clinically useful prognostic model. We conducted a prospective, nested case-control study of 241 HIV-infected adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda with cough ≥2 weeks in duration. We collected demographic and clinical information, baseline serum for procalcitonin analysis, and followed patients to determine in-hospital mortality.
Epidemiology of Anal HPV Infection in High-Risk Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico. Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regression models were performed to determine factors associated with any, high-risk (HR), and multiple anal HPV infection.
Gamma Interferon Release Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST and IGRA are acceptable but imperfect tests. They represent indirect markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB, distinguish reactivation from reinfection, or resolve the various stages within the spectrum of M. tuberculosis infection. Both TST and IGRA have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised patients and have low predictive value for progression to active TB. To maximize the positive predictive value of existing tests, LTBI screening should be reserved for those who are at sufficiently high risk of progressing to disease. Such high-risk individuals may be identifiable by using multivariable risk prediction models that incorporate test results with risk factors and using serial testing to resolve underlying phenotypes. In the longer term, basic research is necessary to identify highly predictive biomarkers.
Uptake of Community-Based HIV Testing during a Multi-Disease Health Campaign in Rural Uganda. The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is a major obstacle for HIV prevention and treatment. Multi-disease, community health campaigns (CHCs) offering HIV testing are a successful approach to rapidly increase HIV testing rates and identify undiagnosed HIV. However, a greater understanding of population-level uptake is needed to maximize effectiveness of this approach. After community sensitization and a census, a five-day campaign was performed in May 2012 in a rural Ugandan community. The census enumerated all residents, capturing demographics, household location, and fingerprint biometrics. The CHC included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Residents who attended vs. did not attend the CHC were compared to determine predictors of participation.
Sexual dysfunction in male iraq and afghanistan war veterans: association with posttraumatic stress disorder and other combat-related mental health disorders: a population-based cohort study. Mental health disorders are prevalent in the United States, Iraq, and Afghanistan war veterans. Mental illness, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with or without psychiatric medications, can increase the risk for male sexual dysfunction, threatening quality of life. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction among male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 405,275 male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare from October 7, 2001 to September 30, 2009 and had 2-year follow-up.
Translating molecular physiology of intestinal transport into pharmacologic treatment of diarrhea: stimulation of na(+) absorption. Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries, while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The World Health Organization recommended that low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea, but there are no approved, safe drugs that have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including increased intestinal anion secretion and reduced Na(+) absorption, suggest a number of potential drug targets. This is based on the view that successful drug therapy for diarrhea will result from correcting the abnormalities in electrolyte transport that are pathophysiologic for diarrhea. We review the molecular mechanisms of physiologic regulation of intestinal ion transport and changes that occur in diarrhea and the status of drugs being developed to correct the transport abnormalities in Na(+) absorption that occur in diarrhea. Mechanisms of Cl(-) secretion and approaches to anti-Cl(-) secretory therapies of diarrhea are discussed in a companion review.
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