Cognitive Consequences of a Sustained Monocyte Type 1 IFN Response in HIV-1Infection. With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate models of pathogenic and nonpathogenic SIV suggest that returning the initial IFN spike in acute SIV infection to normal allows the immune system to control infection and return to homeostasis.
Programmed death 1 expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in treated and untreated HIV disease. There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined. PD-1 was measured longitudinally in a cohort of recently HIV-infected individuals (n = 121) who started ART early (<6 months after infection) vs. later (≥2 years after infection). PD-1 was also measured cross-sectionally in a diverse cohort of chronically HIV-infected adults (n = 206).
Human immunoglobulin G reduces the pathogenicity of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) pathogenesis involves binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) present in serum to AQP4 on astrocytes, which causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) is effective for treatment of humorally mediated neurological autoimmune diseases and has been reported to improve disease outcome in a limited number of NMO patients. Here, we investigated hIgG actions on NMO-IgG pathogenicity using an in vivo rat model of NMO and in vitro assays.
Cervical cancer mortality in India. Randomised trials in India have compared mortality from cervical cancer in 224 929 women offered cervical screening with 138 624 women offered no screening whatsoever.1—3 At least 254 women in unscreened control groups died from cervical cancer.4Were study participants given adequate information to provide informed consent?4 If not, journals reporting data from these studies are not compliant with international recommendations about human research protections.In 2007, in The Lancet, Sankaranarayanan and colleagues reported that cervical screening, as compared with no screening, reduced cervical cancer mortality in Tamil Nadu.1 Inexplicably, death rate measurements in unscreened women have continued, even after mortality benefit from screening had (predictably) been confirmed. So far, it is uncertain whether any screening has been offered to any women in unscreened control groups in Tamil Nadu.
Comparing coronary artery calcium among U.S. South Asians with four racial/ethnic groups: the MASALA and MESA studies. South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) have high rates of cardiovascular disease which cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. Few studies have examined coronary artery calcium (CAC) in South Asians. We created a community-based cohort of South Asians in the United States and compared the prevalence and distribution of CAC to four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We compared 803 asymptomatic South Asians free of cardiovascular disease to the four MESA racial/ethnic groups (2622 Whites, 1893 African Americans, 1496 Latinos and 803 Chinese Americans).
Synthesis, Antiplasmodial Activity, and β-Hematin Inhibition of Hydroxypyridone-Chloroquine Hybrids. A series of noncytotoxic 4-aminoquinoline-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one hybrids were synthesized on the basis of a synergistic in vitro combination of a precursor N-alkyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one with chloroquine (CQ) and tested in vitro against CQ resistant (K1 and W2) and sensitive (3D7) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of the precursors was negated by blocking the chelator moiety via complexation with gallium(III) or benzyl protection.
Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries. Population health needs in developing countries are great and countries are scaling up health professional education to meet these needs. Marginalized populations, in particular, are vulnerable to poor health and health care. This paper presents a culturally appropriate diversity training program delivered to Global Health Fellows who are educators and leaders in health professions in Malawi and Zambia. The purpose of this interprofessional education experience was to promote culturally competent and humble care for marginalized populations.
Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil. Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward.
Peer social support is associated with recent HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men. Resiliency factors such as social support have been associated with more frequent HIV testing among MSM. We examined the association between social support and delayed HIV testing in the context of structural discrimination and individual factors among young Black MSM. We combined two independent cross-sectional samples recruited 1 year apart from a venue-based, modified time-location sampling study of young Black MSM aged 18-29 years in the US South. Our subsample (N = 813) was men who self-reported not being HIV positive and who indicated they had one or more male sex partners in the past 2 months.
Environmental health attitudes and behaviors: findings from a large pregnancy cohort study. Environmental chemicals are widely found in food and personal care products and may have adverse effects on fetal development. Our aim was to examine women's attitudes about these chemicals and ask whether they try to limit their exposure during pregnancy. A multi-center cohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires including items on attitudes and behaviors related to environmental chemicals. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine: (1) whether sociodemographic variables predict environmental health attitudes and behaviors; and (2) whether women's attitudes about environmental chemicals affect their lifestyle behaviors, particularly diet and personal care product use.
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