Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Update of the 2005 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening for HIV. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of treatments in HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts greater than 0.200 × 109 cells/L; effects of screening, counseling, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use on risky behaviors and HIV transmission risk; and long-term cardiovascular harms of ART.
Cell-based measures of viral persistence are associated with immune activation and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-expressing CD4+ T cells. Studies aimed at defining the association between host immune responses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence during therapy are necessary to develop new strategies for cure. We performed a comprehensive assessment of ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA levels, cell-associated HIV RNA levels, proviral HIV DNA levels, and T cell immunophenotyping in a cohort of 190 subjects in whom HIV levels were suppressed by highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Fatal Transplant-Associated West Nile Virus Encephalitis and Public Health
Investigation-California, 2010. In December 2010, a case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis occurring in a kidney recipient shortly after organ transplantation was identified. A public health investigation was initiated to determine the likely route of transmission, detect potential WNV infections among recipients from the same organ donor, and remove any potentially infected blood products or tissues. Available serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine samples from the organ donor and recipients were tested for WNV infection by nucleic acid testing and serology.
The Distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in Cell Subsets Differs in Gut and Blood of HIV-Positive Patients on ART: Implications for Viral Persistence. Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV
DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects.
Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Data from 38 HIV-positive and 29 HIV-negative children born to seropositive women were obtained. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children.
Predictors of abortion counseling receipt and helpfulness in the United States. Little is known about women's expectations, needs, and experiences with abortion counseling and the factors that influence their experiences. This study sought to investigate individual- and facility-level factors that influenced women's reports of receiving abortion counseling and the helpfulness
of counseling. Data were drawn from quantitative interviews with 718 patients recruited from 30 abortion facilities, and 27 interviews with facility informants in the United States.
Association of HLA-DRB1-restricted CD4(+) T cell responses with HIV immune control. We delineated previously uncharacterized peptide-DRB1 restrictions in functional assays and analyzed the host genetic effects of HLA-DRB1 alleles on HIV viremia in a large cohort of HIV controllers and progressors.
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