Hypothemicin, a fungal natural product, identifies therapeutic targets in Trypanosoma brucei. Protein kinases are potentially attractive therapeutic targets for neglected parasitic diseases, including African trypanosomiasis caused by the protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. How to prioritize T. brucei kinases and quantify their
intracellular engagement by small-molecule inhibitors remain unsolved problems.
Here, we combine chemoproteomics and RNA interference to interrogate trypanosome
kinases bearing a Cys-Asp-Xaa-Gly motif (CDXG kinases).
Assessment of Transmission in Trachoma Programs over Time Suggests No Short-Term Loss of Immunity. Trachoma programs have dramatically reduced the prevalence of the ocular chlamydia that cause the disease. Some have hypothesized that immunity to the infection may be reduced because of program success in reducing the incidence of infection, and transmission may then increase. Longitudinal studies of multiple communities would be necessary to test this hypothesis. Here, we quantify transmission using an estimated basic reproduction number based on 32 communities during the first, second, and third years of an antibiotic treatment program.
Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: where have we been and where are we going? Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV-uninfected persons with ongoing HIV
risk use antiretroviral medications to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV infection, is an efficacious and promising new HIV prevention strategy. The past 2 years have seen significant new advances in knowledge regarding PrEP, including definitive demonstration that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, regulatory approval of combination oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as the first PrEP agent with a label indication for sexual HIV prevention, and the development of normative guidance for clinical prescribing of PrEP. In PrEP clinical trials, HIV protection was strongly correlated with PrEP adherence; therefore, understanding and supporting adherence to PrEP are key to maximizing its public health impact. .
Selected insights from application of whole-genome sequencing for outbreak investigations. The combination of whole-genome sequencing and intensive epidemiologic analysis provided new insights on the sources and transmission dynamics of large-scale epidemics caused by Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, nosocomial outbreaks caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium abscessus, community-centered outbreaks caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and natural disaster-associated outbreaks caused by environmentally acquired molds. When combined with traditional epidemiologic investigation, whole-genome sequencing has proven useful for elucidating the sources and transmission
dynamics of disease outbreaks. Development of a fully automated bioinformatics
pipeline for the analysis of whole-genome sequence data is much needed to make
this powerful tool more widely accessible.
Understanding and addressing socio-cultural barriers to medical male circumcision in traditionally non-circumcising rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Given recent clinical trials establishing the safety and efficacy of adult medical male circumcision (MMC) in Africa, attention has now shifted to barriers and facilitators to programmatic implementation in traditionally non-circumcising communities. In this study, we attempted to develop a fuller
understanding of the role of cultural issues in the acceptance of adult circumcision. We conducted four focus-group discussions with 28 participants in Mutoko, Zimbabwe, and 33 participants in Vulindlela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, as well as 19 key informant interviews in both settings.
On Being Gay in Barbados: "Bullers" and "Battyboys" and their HIV Risk in a Societal Context of Stigma. Limited research exists about gay men in the Caribbean region. A qualitative study was conducted to characterize gay men in Barbados, their HIV risk, and the impact of stigma on their lives. The 2 main groups of gay men reflect social class and level of "outness" in broader society. Homophobia, stigma, and buggery (sodomy) laws increase their HIV vulnerability. The need for anti-discrimination legislation and tools for self-development were identified for gay men to realize their strengths, develop their self-worth, and protect themselves from HIV.
Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland. Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and QOL
among community-dwelling older adults. One hundred seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland, completed self-report measures of QOL, depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL.
Capsule Commentary on Long and Stavert, Portfolios of Biomedical HIV Interventions in South Africa: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
Smoking cessation interventions with female smokers living with HIV/AIDS: a randomized pilot study of motivational interviewing. Smoking among people living with HIV, particularly women living with HIV, is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates when compared to nonsmoking individuals with HIV. Despite patients' higher risk of adverse health outcomes, in particular preventable smoking-related diseases for smokers living with HIV, few smoking cessation interventions have been examined with this population. The aim of this study was to test the potential efficacy of a brief motivational intervention for smoking cessation with HIV-infected women smokers. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single session of motivational interviewing or prescribed advice. The results of this pilot study indicate that motivational interviewing may be an effective smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive women smokers and should be studied further in a larger clinical trial.
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