Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception. For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1-uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation, but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing.
Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV < 80 fl), normocytic (80-100 fl), macrocytic (>100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4 T-cell counts (nadir and baseline), Karnofsky score, previous AIDS diagnosis, hepatitis B/C coinfection and use of zidovudine.
Quantitative proteomic analysis of Huh-7 cells infected with Dengue virus by label-free LC-MS. Dengue is an important and growing public health problem worldwide with an estimated 100million new clinical cases annually. Currently, no licensed drug or vaccine is available. During natural infection in humans, liver cells constitute one of the main targets of dengue virus (DENV) replication. However, a clear understanding of dengue pathogenesis remains elusive. In order to gain a better reading of the cross talk between virus and host cell proteins, we used a proteomics approach to analyze the host response to DENV infection in a hepatic cell line Huh-7.
A pilot external quality assurance study of transfusion screening for HIV, HCV and HBsAG in 12 African countries. Serologic screening for the major transfusion transmissible viruses (TTV) is critical to blood safety and has been widely implemented. However, actual performance as measured by proficiency testing has not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted an external quality assessment of laboratories engaged in transfusion screening in the region. Blinded test panels, each comprising 25 serum samples that were pedigreed for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and negative status, were sent to participating laboratories. The panels were tested using the laboratories' routine donor screening methods and conditions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and multivariable analysis was used to compare performance against mode of testing, country and infrastructure.
'To quarterback behind the scenes, third-party efforts': the tobacco industry and the Tea Party. The Tea Party, which gained prominence in the USA in 2009, advocates limited government and low taxes. Tea Party organisations, particularly Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks, oppose smoke-free laws and tobacco taxes. We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the Wayback Machine, Google, LexisNexis, the Center for Media and Democracy and the Center for Responsive Politics (opensecrets.org) to examine the tobacco companies' connections to the Tea Party.
Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients with HIV coinfection. Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been limited due to drug interactions with antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) and the need to use interferon. Our objective is to determine the rates of HCV eradication (sustained virologic response [SVR]) and adverse events in patients with HCV-HIV coinfection receiving sofosbuvir and ribavirin treatment. Open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 3 trial conducted at 34 treatment centers in the United States and Puerto Rico (August 2012-November 2013) evaluating treatment with sofosbuvir and ribavirin among patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3 and concurrent HIV. Patients were required to be receiving ART with HIV RNA values of 50 copies/mL or less and a CD4 T-cell count of more than 200 cells/μL or to have untreated HIV infection with a CD4 T-cell count of more than 500 cells/μL. Of the treatment-naive patients, 114 had HCV genotype 1 and 68 had HCV genotype 2 or 3, and 41 treatment experienced participants who had been treated with peginterferon-ribavirin had HCV genotype 2 or 3, for a total of 223 participants.
HIV prevention in clinical care settings: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Emerging data warrant the integration of biomedical and behavioral recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in clinical care settings. Our objective is to provide current recommendations for the prevention of HIV infection in adults and adolescents for integration in clinical care settings. Data published or presented as abstracts at scientific conferences (past 17 years) were systematically searched and reviewed by the International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA HIV Prevention Recommendations Panel. Panel members supplied additional relevant publications, reviewed available data, and formed recommendations by full-panel consensus.
Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. New data and antiretroviral regimens expand treatment choices in resource-rich settings and warrant an update of recommendations to treat adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our objective was to provide updated treatment recommendations for adults with HIV, emphasizing when to start treatment; what treatment to start; the use of laboratory monitoring tools; and managing treatment failure, switches, and simplification. An International Antiviral Society-USA panel of experts in HIV research and patient care considered previous data and reviewed new data since the 2012 update with literature searches in PubMed and EMBASE through June 2014. Recommendations and ratings were based on the quality of evidence and consensus.
Association between smoke-free workplace and second-hand smoke exposure at home in India. The implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws has been associated with reductions in second-hand smoke exposure at home in several high income countries. There is little information on whether these benefits extend to low income and middle income countries with a growing tobacco-related disease burden such as India. State and individual-level analysis of cross-sectional data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India, 2009/2010. Associations between working in a smoke-free indoor environment and living in a smoke-free home were examined using correlation at the state level, and multivariate logistic regression at the individual level.
Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Multidrug Resistance 1 Genes: Parasite Risk Factors that Affect Treatment Outcomes for P. falciparum Malaria after Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine. Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized methods from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network. Data for more than 7,000 patients were analyzed to assess relationships between parasite polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 and clinically relevant outcomes after treatment with AL or ASAQ.
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