Dependence on the CCR5 Coreceptor for Viral Replication Explains the Lack of Rebound of CXCR4-Predicted HIV Variants in the Berlin Patient. The "Berlin patient" is the first patient cured of HIV-1 infection after allogeneic transplantation with nonfunctional CCR5 coreceptor stem cells. We demonstrate that CXCR4-predicted minority viruses present prior to transplantation were unable to rebound after transplantation due to their dependence on CCR5 for replication and high genetic barrier toward CXCR4 usage.
Novel circular single-stranded DNA virus from turkey faeces. Recently, a novel group of unclassified single-stranded (ss) circular small DNA viruses (called stool-associated circular virus; SCV) were identified in fecal samples of three mammalian species, namely, chimpanzee (ChiSCV), pig (PoSCV) and cattle (BoSCV). In this study, a novel genomic relative of stool-associated circular virus (TuSCV, KF880727) was detected in faeces of an avian species, namely, domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The complete TuSCV genome is 2479 nt long and has two open reading frames (ORF), which are bidirectionally transcribed and separated by intergenic regions. The ORF1 (replicase) and ORF2 (capsid) proteins have 77 % and 48 % aa sequence identity to different porcine-origin SCVs.
Longitudinal outcomes in a cohort of ugandan children randomized to artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of malaria.Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has become the standard of care for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although several ACT regimens are approved, data guiding optimal choices of ACTs are limited. We compared short- and long-term outcomes in a cohort of young Ugandan children randomized to 2 leading ACTs. Overall, 312 children were randomized to artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) at the time of the first episode of uncomplicated malaria (median age, 10.5 months). The same treatment was given for all subsequent episodes of uncomplicated malaria and children were followed until they reached 5 years of age. The cohort included a subgroup that was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected (n = 44) or HIV exposed (n = 175) and prescribed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis. Outcomes included time to recurrent malaria following individual treatments and the overall incidences of treatments for malaria, complicated malaria, and hospitalizations.
Cutting Edge: An Antibody Recognizing Ancestral Endogenous Virus Glycoproteins Mediates Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity on HIV-1-Infected Cells. The failure of antiviral vaccines is often associated with rapid viral escape from specific immune responses. In the past, conserved epitope or algorithmic epitope selections, such as mosaic vaccines, have been designed to diversify immunity and to circumvent potential viral escape. An alternative approach is to identify conserved stable non-HIV-1 self-epitopes present exclusively in HIV-1-infected cells. We showed previously that human endogenous retroviral (HERV) mRNA transcripts and protein are found in cells of HIV-1-infected patients and that HERV-K (HML-2)-specific T cells can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In this article, we demonstrate that a human anti-HERV-K (HML-2) transmembrane protein Ab binds specifically to HIV-1-infected cells and eliminates them through an Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism in vitro.
Helping our patients take HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a systematic review of adherence interventions. Adherence is critical for maximizing the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Strategies for promoting adherence to HIV treatment, and their potential application to PrEP adherence, have received considerable attention. However, adherence promotion strategies for prevention medications have not been well characterized and may be more applicable to PrEP. We aimed to identify adherence support interventions that have been effective in other prevention fields and could be applied in the HIV prevention context to support pill taking among PrEP users. To identify adherence support interventions that could be evaluated and applied in the PrEP context, we conducted a systematic review across the following prevention fields: hypertension, latent tuberculosis infection, hyperlipidaemia, oral contraceptives, osteoporosis, malaria prophylaxis, and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence to daily oral medications prescribed for primary prevention in healthy individuals or for secondary prevention in asymptomatic individuals.
Enhancing Diversity in the Public Health Research Workforce: The Research and Mentorship Program for Future HIV Vaccine Scientists. We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health-sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011-2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development.
Research Informs Abortion Care Policy Change in California. We write with updated findings from our study on the Safety of Aspiration Abortion Performed by Nurse Practitioners, Certified Nurse Midwives, and Physician Assistants Under a California Legal Waiver. We have completed recruitment of providers and patients into our study; a final total of 47 nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs) and physician assistants (PAs) were trained to competency in early abortion care.
Attitudes about providing HIV care: voices from publicly funded clinics in California. As the enactment of health care reform becomes a reality in the USA, it has been widely predicted that HIV+ patients will increasingly be cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs), many of whom lack the experience to deliver full-spectrum HIV care. Our objective was to describe PCPs' preparedness for an influx of HIV+ patients. This qualitative study included interviews with 20 PCPs from community health centres in California. We inquired about clinicians' experiences with HIV, their strategies for dealing with unfamiliar aspects of medicine and their management of complicated patients. We also identified the clinicians' preferred types of information and consultation resources.
Metagenomic identification of novel enteric viruses in urban wild rats and genome characterization of a group A rotavirus. Rats are known as reservoirs and vectors for several zoonotic pathogens. However, information on the viruses shed by urban wild rats that could pose zoonotic risk to human health is scare. Here, intestinal contents from 20 wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Berlin, Germany, were subjected to metagenomic analysis of viral nucleic acids.
Targeting Plasmodium falciparum transmission with primaquine: same efficacy, improved safety with a lower dose? Malaria transmission is declining worldwide, leading to a growing interest in strategies to reach elimination and eradication. Insecticide and drug resistance threaten these efforts, driving an interest in the use of gametocytocidal drugs to curb the spread of artemisinin resistance and accelerate the path to malaria elimination. Primaquine is the only marketed drug that can kill mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, which can otherwise contribute to ongoing transmission for long periods of time. While primaquine has been widely used in Asia and the Americas, African countries have little experience with this drug and are reluctant to use primaquine due to a fear of hemolytic side effects. We discuss the underlying knowledge base and motivation to use primaquine as a P. falciparumtransmission blocker, revealing that while primaquine implementation can benefit from further study, there remains an overall need for improved transmission-blocking drugs.
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