A scoping literature review of the provision of orthoses and prostheses in resource-limited environments 2000-2010. Part one: considerations for success. We estimate that over 29 million people worldwide in resource-limited environments (RLEs) are in need of orthotic and prosthetic (O&P) devices and services.Objectives:Our goal was to ascertain the current state of O&P provision in RLEs and identify factors that may lead to more successful O&P provision.Methods:We conducted a comprehensive scoping literature review of all information related to O&P provision in RLEs published from 2000 to 2010. We targeted Vietnam, Cambodia, Tanzania, Malawi, Colombia, and the Navajo Nation, but also included information about developing countries in general. We searched academic databases and grey literature. We extracted information from each article in the areas of design, manufacturing, distribution, service provision, and technology transfer.Results:We identified commonly reported considerations and strategies for O&P provision from 431 articles. Analysis of expert consensus documents revealed recurring themes for improving O&P provision. We found that some suggestions from the consensus documents are being followed, but many are overlooked or have not yet been implemented.Conclusions:Areas for improvement include conducting field testing during the design process, providing services to rural environments, offering follow-up services, considering government collaboration, and encouraging an active role of the orthosis/prosthesis user. Outcomes and research studies will be further discussed in Part Two.
The viruses of wild pigeon droppings. Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.
Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
The Association between Latrine Use and Trachoma: A Secondary Cohort Analysis from a Randomized Clinical Trial. Latrine use has been promoted as a component of an integrated strategy for trachoma control. As part of a randomized trial in Ethiopia, 12 communities received a mass azithromycin distribution followed by a latrine promotion intervention. A random sample of children ages 0-9 years in each community was monitored longitudinally for ocular Chlamydia. After latrine construction ended, those communities with a higher proportion of households using latrines were more likely to experience a reduction in the prevalence of ocular Chlamydia. Specifically, for each 10% increase in latrine use, there was a 2.0% decrease in the community prevalence of ocular Chlamydia over the subsequent year.
Asian Indian views on diet and health in the United States: importance of understanding cultural and social factors to address disparities. This study describes Asian Indian immigrant perspectives surrounding dietary beliefs and practices to identify intervention targets for diabetes and heart disease prevention. Participants were asked about conceptualizations of relationships between culture, food, and health during 4 focus groups (n = 38). Findings reveal influences of beliefs from respondents' native India, preservation of cultural practices within the US social structure, conflicts with subsequent generations, and reinterpretation of health-related knowledge through a lens, hybridizing both "native" and "host" contexts. Galvanization of ethnically valued beliefs incorporating family and community structures is needed for multipronged approaches to reduce disproportionate burdens of disease among this understudied minority community.
Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries. Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric.
Distinguishing language and race disparities in epilepsy surgery. This study aimed to identify whether race/ethnicity and limited English proficiency impact the likelihood of pursuing surgical treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 213 patients with medically refractory epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis who were being considered for temporal lobectomy between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2010 with follow-up through December 31, 2012. Culturally sensitive patient-physician communication and patient education materials might aid in surgical decision-making among minority groups.
Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe. Limited data exist on use of the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay among persons suspected of MDR-TB living in high HIV-prevalence settings. We retrospectively reviewed available clinical and drug susceptibility data for drug-resistant TB suspects referred for culture and drug-susceptibility testing between April 1, 2011 and March 1, 2012. The diagnostic accuracy of MODS was estimated against a reference standard including Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and manual liquid (BACTEC MGIT) culture. The accuracy of MODS drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was assessed against a reference standard absolute concentration method.
CDC Should Reverse Its Recommendation against Semen Washing-Intrauterine Insemination for HIV-serodifferent Couples
Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the CVD Policy Model - Argentina. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina's sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy.
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