Sexually transmitted infection related stigma and shame among african american male youth: implications for testing practices, partner notification, and treatment. A self-administered, street intercept survey was conducted in order to examine the relation of stigma and shame associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) to STI testing practices, partner notification, and partner-delivered treatment among young African American men (n=108) in a low-income, urban community in San Francisco with high STI burden.
Designer lipids for drug delivery: From heads to tails. For four decades, liposomes composed of both naturally occurring and synthetic lipids have been investigated as delivery vehicles for low molecular weight and macromolecular drugs. These studies paved the way for the clinical and commercial success of a number of liposomal drugs, each of which required a tailored formulation; one liposome size does not fit all drugs! Instead, the physicochemical properties of the liposome must be matched to the pharmacology of the drug. An extensive biophysical literature demonstrates that varying lipid composition can influence the size, membrane stability, in vivo interactions, and drug release properties of a liposome. In this review we focus on recently described synthetic lipid headgroups, linkers and hydrophobic domains that can provide control over the intermolecular forces, phase preference, and macroscopic behavior of liposomes.
Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion. Programme implementers have argued that the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will reduce the stigma of HIV. We analyzed data from Uganda to assess how HIV-related stigma has changed during a period of ART expansion. We analyzed data from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study during 2007-2012 to estimate trends in internalized stigma among people living with HIV (PLHIV) at the time of treatment initiation. We analyzed data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys from 2006 to 2011 to estimate trends in stigmatizing attitudes and anticipated stigma in the general population. We fitted regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, with year of data collection as the primary explanatory variable.
Nonsmokers' responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study. Graphic warning labels are a tobacco control best practice that is mandated in the US for cigarettes under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. However, smokeless tobacco products are not required to carry graphic warning labels, and as of September 2014, electronic cigarettes in the US carry no warning labels and are aggressively marketed, including with "reduced harm" or "FDA Approved" messages. In this online experiment, 483 US adult non-users of tobacco were randomized to view print advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes with either warning labels (current warning label, graphic warning label) or "endorsements" (a "lower risk" label proposed by a tobacco company, an "FDA Approved" label) or control (tobacco advertisement with no label, advertisement for a non-tobacco consumer products). Main outcome measures included changes in perceived harm, positive attitudes towards, openness to using, and interest in a free sample of moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes.
3D molecular models of whole HIV-1 virions generated with cellPACK. As knowledge of individual biological processes grows, it becomes increasingly useful to frame new findings within their larger biological contexts in order to generate new systems-scale hypotheses. This report highlights two major iterations of a whole virus model of HIV-1, generated with the cellPACK software. cellPACK integrates structural and systems biology data with packing algorithms to assemble comprehensive 3D models of cell-scale structures in molecular detail. This report describes the biological data, modeling parameters and cellPACK methods used to specify and construct editable models for HIV-1.
The CD8+ memory stem T cell (TSCM) subset is associated with improved prognosis in chronic HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection leads to profound impairment of the immune system. TSCM constitute a recently identified lymphocyte subset with stem-cell like qualities including the ability to generate other memory T cell subtypes, and are therefore likely to play an important role in controlling viral infection. We investigated the relationship between the size of the CD8+ TSCM compartment and HIV-1 disease progression in a cohort of chronically infected individuals. Our results suggest that HAART restores a normal frequency of CD8+ TSCM and that the natural preservation of this subset in the setting of untreated HIV-1 infection is associated with improved viral control and immunity. Therefore, the CD8+ TSCM population may represent a correlate of protection in chronic HIV-1 infection that is directly relevant to the design of T cell-based vaccines, adoptive immunotherapy approaches or the pharmacologic induction of TSCM.
Automated in situ hybridization for human papilloma virus. With the increased number of requests for high-risk human papilloma virus in situ hybridization (HPV ISH), not only for uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but also for biopsies and resections of oropharyngeal SCC, and fine needle aspiration cell blocks of metastatic SCC in cervical lymph nodes, we optimized an automated method to replace the manual one we had used. The new technique used the Leica BOND-maX or III immunostainer, already in use for immunohistochemical analysis, with the Enzo HPV type 16/18 and 6/11 probes. We stained 55 surgical biopsies and 41 cell blocks of oropharyngeal SCC.
Risk factors for anal HPV-16/18 infection in Mexican HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Our objective is to describe the prevalence of specific HPV types among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly the presence of HPV-16 and -18, and to determine the factors associated with anal HPV-16/18 infections. This is a cross-sectional study from a baseline cohort of 525 HIV-positive MSM, who attended an HIV Clinic in Mexico City. Socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors and HIV-related parameters were assessed. Anal samples were tested for HPV DNA using the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay.
An Automated Telephone Nutrition Support System for Spanish-Speaking Patients With Diabetes. In the United States, Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes often receive inadequate dietary counseling. Providing language and culture-concordant dietary counseling on an ongoing basis is critical to diabetes self-care. To determine if automated telephone nutrition support (ATNS) counseling could help patients improve glycemic control by duplicating a successful pilot in Mexico in a Spanish-speaking population in Oakland, California. A prospective randomized open-label trial with blinded endpoint assessment (PROBE) was performed. The participants were seventy-five adult patients with diabetes receiving care at a federally qualified health center in Oakland, California. ATNS, a computerized system that dialed patients on their phones, prompted them in Spanish to enter (via keypad) portions consumed in the prior 24 hours of various cultural-specific dietary items, and then provided dietary feedback based on proportion of high versus low glycemic index foods consumed.
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