Association between being employed in a smoke-free workplace and living in a smoke-free home: Evidence from 15 low and middle income countries. To assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home in 15 low and middle income countries (LMICs). Country-specific individual level analyses of cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (2008-2011) from 15 LMICs was conducted using multiple logistic regression. The dependent variable was living in a smoke-free home; the independent variable was being employed in a smoke-free workplace. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, residence, region, education, occupation, current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and number of household members. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis.
A Low-Cost Method for Analyzing Nevirapine Levels in Hair as a Marker of Adherence in Resource-Limited Settings. The measurement of antiretroviral concentrations in hair is emerging as an important technology to objectively quantify adherence to combination
antiretroviral therapy. Hair levels of antiretrovirals are the strongest independent predictor of virologic success in large prospective cohorts of HIV-infected patients and surpass self-report in predicting outcomes. Hair is easy to collect and store, but validated methods to analyze antiretroviral levels in hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are expensive. We report here on the development of a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay for the semiquantitative analysis of nevirapine in hair. TLC assay results from 11 samples were consistent with results using LC-MS/MS [Spearman correlation coefficient 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-0.996)]. This simple, low-cost method of analyzing nevirapine concentrations in hair may provide a novel monitoring tool for antiretroviral adherence in resource-limited settings and merits further study in clinical settings.
Troubling "Environments": Postgenomics, Bajan Wheezing, and Lévi-Strauss. [Barbados]. Postgenomics is intended to move beyond the search for genes to explore disease as a result of genes interacting with their environment, revealing how they have relevance for health. This addition of environment confers genomic research with new cultural life, making it relevant to public health discourse, government interventions, and health disparities. Drawing on ethnographic research following an American genetics of asthma study conducted in Barbados, I explore the ways environment gets construed by the multiple communities involved-U.S. researchers, Bajan officials, medical practitioners, and patient participants. I draw on Lévi-Strauss to argue that plural competing environments give mana to the American postgenomic project as intervention on racial injustice, household practices, pollution, and other aspects of asthma.
Rapid Molecular Testing for TB to Guide Respiratory Isolation in the U.S.: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. Respiratory isolation of inpatients during evaluation for TB is a slow and costly process in low-burden settings. Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a novel molecular test for tuberculosis (TB) that is faster and more sensitive but substantially more expensive than smear microscopy. No previous studies have examined the costs of molecular testing as a replacement for smear microscopy in this setting. We conducted an incremental cost-benefit analysis comparing the use of a single negative Xpert versus two negative sputum smears to release consecutive adult inpatients with presumed TB from respiratory isolation at an urban public hospital in the United States. We estimated all health-system costs and patient outcomes related to Xpert implementation, diagnostic evaluation, isolation, hospitalization, and treatment. We performed sensitivity and probabilistic uncertainty analyses to determine at what threshold the Xpert strategy would become cost-saving.
Methods for translating evidence-based behavioral interventions for health-disparity communities. Populations composed of racial/ethnic minorities, disabled persons, and people with low socioeconomic status have worse health than their counterparts.
Implementing evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) to prevent and
manage chronic disease and disability in community settings could help ameliorate disparities. Although numerous models of implementation processes are available, they are broad in scope, few offer specific methodological guidance, and few address the special issues in reaching vulnerable populations. Drawing from 2 existing models, we describe 7 methodological phases in the process of translating and implementing EBIs in communities to reach these vulnerable groups: establish infrastructure for translation partnership, identify multiple inputs (information gathering), review and distill information (synthesis), adapt and integrate program components (translation), build general and specific capacity (support system), implement intervention (delivery system), and develop
appropriate designs and measures (evaluation).
Electronic Cigarette Use Among Korean Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study of Market Penetration, Dual Use, and Relationship to Quit Attempts and Former Smoking. As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression.
TLTF in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Detection and Staging of T. b. gambiense Infection. TLTF and anti-TLTF antibodies were assessed in sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense) in an attempt to identify alternative markers for diagnosis and stage determination of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness. Seventy-four serum and sixty-one CSF samples from patients with parasitologically confirmed infection and known disease stage along with 13 sera and CSF from uninfected controls were tested. In serum the levels of anti-TLTF antibodies were unrelated to the disease stage. In contrast, levels of anti-TLTF antibodies in CSF were higher in intermediate/late stages than in early stage disease patients. Specificity of the detected antibodies was assessed by inhibition of TLTF bioactivity as represented by its ability to induce IFN-γ production. Additionally, TLTF was detected in CSF from late stage patients by Western blotting with the anti-TLTF specific monoclonal antibody MO3.
An estimation of inguinal hernia epidemiology adjusted for population age structure in Tanzania. Surgical conditions represent a significant source of global disease burden. Little is known about the epidemiology of inguinal hernia in resource-poor settings. We present a method to estimate inguinal hernia disease burden in Tanzania. Using data from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) prospective cohort study and Tanzanian demographic figures, we calculated inguinal hernia incidence and prevalence in Tanzanian adults under three surgical rate scenarios. Gender-specific incidence figures from NHANES data were adjusted according to Tanzanian population age structure. Hernia duration was adjusted for Tanzanian life expectancy within each age group.
A reanalysis of cancer mortality in Canadian nuclear workers (1956-1994) based on revised exposure and cohort data. 15-country study of nuclear workers reported significantly increased radiation-related risks of all cancers excluding leukaemia, with Canadian data a major factor behind the pooled results. We analysed mortality (1956-1994) in the updated Canadian cohort and provided revised risk estimates. Employment
records were searched to verify and revise exposure data and to restore missing
socioeconomic status. Excess relative risks per sievert (ERR/Sv) of recorded radiation dose and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression.
Prevalence and drivers of HIV stigma among health providers in urban India: implications for interventions. HIV stigma inflicts hardship and suffering on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and interferes with both prevention and treatment efforts. Health professionals are often named by PLHIV as an important source of stigma. This study was designed to examine rates and drivers of stigma and discrimination among doctors, nurses and ward staff in different urban healthcare settings in high HIV prevalence states in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 305 doctors, 369 nurses and 346 ward staff in both governmental and non-governmental healthcare settings in Mumbai and Bengaluru, India. The approximately one-hour long interviews focused on knowledge related to HIV transmission, personal and professional experiences with PLHIV, instrumental and symbolic stigma, endorsement of coercive policies, and intent to discriminate in professional and personal situations that involve high and low risk of fluid exposure.
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