Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Pregnant Ugandan Women Randomized to Lopinavir/ritonavir- or Efavirenz-based Antiretroviral Therapy.Protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with preterm birth in some studies. We examined risk factors for preterm birth among women randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based ART. This was a planned secondary analysis of the PROMOTE-Pregnant Women and Infants Study, an open-label, randomized controlled trial comparing the risk of placental malaria among HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant Ugandan women assigned to initiate lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based ART at 12 to 28 weeks gestation. Gestational age was determined based on last menstrual period and ultrasound biometry. All women received bednets and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, and multiple gestations were excluded from the primary analysis. Potential risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
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