Quantifying absolute protein synthesis rates reveals principles underlying allocation of cellular resources. Quantitative views of cellular functions require precise measures of rates of biomolecule production, especially proteins-the direct effectors of biological processes. Here, we present a genome-wide approach, based on ribosome profiling, for measuring absolute protein synthesis rates. The resultant E. coli data set transforms our understanding of the extent to which protein synthesis is precisely controlled to optimize function and efficiency.
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