Alcohol and substance use among transgender women in San Francisco: Prevalence and association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Alcohol and substance use can have negative health consequences among both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative individuals, and are associated with behaviors that facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. The relationship of substance use and HIV is well documented among key populations at risk for HIV. However, although transwomen (male-to-female transgender) are disproportionately impacted by HIV, this overlap remains understudied in this population. We sought to evaluate the association between HIV, alcohol and substance use among transwomen. We conducted a secondary data analysis of Respondent Driven Sampling study which collected information on self-reported alcohol and substance use among 314 transwomen. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess relationship between HIV infection and classes and patterns of alcohol and substance use.
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