Immune evasion mediated by tumor-derived lactate dehydrogenase induction of NKG2D ligands on myeloid cells in glioblastoma patients. Myeloid cells are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment, governing local immune responses. Here we report that tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and circulating monocytes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) express ligands for activating the Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, which cause down-regulation of NKG2D on natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-infiltrating NK cells isolated from GBM patients fail to lyse NKG2D ligand-expressing tumor cells. We demonstrate that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform 5 secreted by glioblastoma cells induces NKG2D ligands on monocytes isolated from healthy individuals.
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