Epidemiological challenges to the assessment of HIV burdens among key populations: respondent-driven sampling, time-location sampling and demographic and health surveys. Measuring the burden of HIV among key populations is subject to many challenges. Sufficient quantities of valid HIV prevalence and programme coverage data are required to effectively respond to the epidemic. Ability to validate exposure to unprotected sex through the innovative use of prostate-specific antigen provides confirmation of condom use. A new weighting scheme based on frequency of venue attendance for time location samples should improve validity of data obtained with this method. Two new proportion estimators, new diagnostic methods, a new population size estimator and new analysis software will provide more robust results from respondent-driven sampling (RDS).
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