Dynamic regulation of host restriction factor expression over the course of HIV-1 infection in vivo. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of host restriction factors in six untreated HIV-1-positive patients over the course of infection. We found that the host restriction factor gene expression profile consistently increased over time and significantly associated with CD4+ T cell activation and viral load. Our data are among the first to demonstrate the dynamic nature of host restriction factors in vivo over time.
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