HIV and aging: emerging research issues. It is now widely accepted that HIV-infected individuals remain at a higher risk for mortality and age-related morbidities than the general population, but several unresolved issues need to be addressed by the research community in the coming years to further improve the health of HIV-infected individuals in the modern treatment era. Although recent studies have helped to better define the contribution of HIV to life expectancy and morbidity in the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, questions remain about the generalizability of these findings to a future HIV-infected population that is expected to be much older. Furthermore, although a consensus has emerged that the persistent inflammatory state contributes to morbidity and mortality in this setting, the relative contributions of this process, health-related behaviours, comorbidities and medication toxicities remain incompletely understood. Lastly, significant uncertainty remains over the root causes of the persistent inflammatory state, the specific immunologic pathways to target with interventions and the most appropriate biomarkers to use for surrogate outcomes in pilot trials of immune-based interventions.
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