The Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Catabolism, CD4+ T-Cell Recovery, and Mortality Among HIV-Infected Ugandans Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) expression in activated monocytes and dendritic cells catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine and other downstream catabolites that inhibit T-cell proliferation and interleukin 17 (IL-17) production. The prognostic significance of this pathway in treated HIV disease is unknown. We measured systemic IDO activity (calculated as the ratio of plasma levels of kynurenine to tryptophan; hereafter, the "KT ratio") in HIV-infected Ugandans before and during antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated viral suppression and its association with the rate of subsequent CD4(+) T-cell count recovery and mortality.
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